South Philadelphia takes tinsel seriously. You wont find artisanal pine-cone garlands in this neighbourhood. The tinsel here is locally sourced from Brite Star Manufacturing Co., a family-owned business that is one of the only remaining U.S. producers of the shiny stuff. Lest you think that decking your halls with tinsel is passé, third-generation Yuletide purveyor Judy Kinderman says her familys company has been doing brisk business since the Great Recession. Whenever theres an economic downturn, she says, people turn to less expensive ways to decorate. Tinselnamed from the Old French word estincele, for sparkledidnt always come cheap. The program for the 1853 New York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations includes silver and gold tinsel goods from Nuremberg and Weissenberg, in Bavaria, though it isnt clear whether these were made from pure precious metals. Tinsel was in use as a tree decoration in Germany in the late-19th century, says Georgia State University historian Joe Perry, author of the book Christmas in Germany. Texts mention thin strips of tin-laminated sheet brass as well as silver-laminated copper wire woven through textiles, he says. The expense of a decorated Christmas tree likely kept tinsel from all but the wealthy. The 20th century brought tinsel mass production. Lyon, France, was a turn-of-the-century leader in tinsel manufacturing, but demand for copper during World War I made the tinsel trade a low priority across the globe. Aluminium, sometimes combined with cellulose acetate, was also popular but flammable. Another choice for tinsel during this time was lead. German company Stanniolfabrik Eppstein received an imperial patent on lead tinsel in 1904. That tinsel consisted of a grey, dull lead alloy foil with shiny tin bonded on top, says Dirk Mälzer, chief executive officer of the firms modern-day descendant EppsteinFOILS. The other components of the lead alloy are no longer known, Mälzer says. The product was called Stanniol Lametta, from the Latin word for tin and an Italian term meaning tiny blade. But lead-filled tinsel wasnt German-only merchandise. Kinderman says Brite Star was selling the tree bling with a large component of lead by the early 1950s. Lead-based tinsel was a hit. It was beautiful, says Susan Waggoner, author of Handcrafted Christmas and other books about the holidays history. You had to put it on the tree one strand at a time, she recalls. It didnt tarnish and it would hang down heavy, and youd have that dripping, glittering icicle effect. By the 1960s, though, awareness of the risks of lead poisoning spelled the end for lead-based tinsel. The Food & Drug Administration reached an agreement with tinsel importers and manufacturers, putting an end to lead alloy tinsel in the U.S. in 1972. The lead heave-ho-ho-ho got people thinking about other tree-trimming options. For instance, in 1969, Walter J. Schrenk of Dow Chemical patented iridescent Christmas tinsel prepared from combinations of polymers having a specified difference in refractive index. Even Stanniolfabrik Eppstein scrapped its imperially approved formula. In 1988, the firm patented tinsel made from an alloy of tin and antimony. Other merchants went back to basics: At least one German silversmith still markets real silver lametta. Most tinsel nowadays is made with fairly ordinary plastics. At Festive Productions, a family-owned firm in Wales, tinsel is made from polyvinyl chloride, says spokeswoman Cassie Hedlund. Plastic tinsel typically gets its shiny finish from metallisation, which is performed by heating and evaporating a metal such as aluminium under a vacuum and condensing it onto the plastic to leave a thin coating. Diehards like Waggoner miss the heft of classic tinsel. The plastic stuff just floats in the breeze, she says. Even EppsteinFOILS tin-antimony alloy couldnt compare with the original. Sales were weaker by comparison, so the company ceased all production of tinsel in 2013. Back in South Philly, Kinderman hears from so many old-school tinsel fans that she wishes she could join forces with chemists to try again for an inexpensive and safe replacement. Give them my phone number, she says, and we can talk.
Chemical & Engineering News, 15 December 2014 ;http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news ;