1-Bromopropane (n-propylbromide or nPB) is an organobromine compound with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2Br. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][1] It is a colourless liquid. Slightly denser than water and slightly soluble in water. When heated to high temperatures may emit toxic fumes. [2]


Uses [3]


1-Bromopropane was originally used in the production of pesticides, flavours and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals. It is currently used as a solvent in the adhesives, dry cleaning, vapour degreasing, and electronic and metal cleaning industries. 1-Bromopropane production has increased over the last 10 years due to its use as a replacement for other more harmful substances.


Sources & Routes of Exposure


Sources of Exposure [3]


  • Exposure to 1-bromopropane is mainly an occupational problem.
  • Workers using 1-bromopropane as a spray adhesive have the highest exposures.
  • Workers involved in the production of 1-bromopropane or those using it in commercial applications have potential for high exposure.
  • You may be exposed to 1-bromopropane in air when it is used during aerosol applications.


Routes of Exposure [4]


  • Inhalation – Principal route of exposure for workers using 1-bromopropane in aerosol applications. Potential route of exposure for populations living near industrial facilities where 1-bromopropane is used in aerosol applications.
  • Oral – Not an important route of exposure because 1-bromopropane has not been detected in food or water.
  • Dermal – Important route of exposure for workers using 1-bromopropane as a spray adhesive.


Health Effects [5]


Acute Effects


Short-term exposure to 1-bromopropane can result in irritation of the eyes, nose, throat or respiratory tract.


Chronic Effects


Chronic (long-term) exposure to 1-bromopropane can adversely affect peripheral nerves and the central nervous system. Symptoms that have been reported include joint pain or leg weakness and pain leading to difficulty standing and walking; muscle twitching or numbness, tingling and prickling in the hands or feet, loss of vibration sense; and anxiety, apathy, insomnia, and difficulties with concentration and memory.

Other health effects that may also occur include dermatitis, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, difficulty in swallowing, disruption or failure of menstruation, urinary difficulties, anaemia or low haematocrit (red blood cell count), liver damage, and lung disease.


Reproductive Hazards


Animal studies have shown that inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane can result in decreased foetal weight and skeletal variations. In addition, similar studies in animals have shown 1-bromopropane to cause decreased fertility, decreased prostate weight and effects on sperm quality. Some case studies of female workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane reported altered menstrual periods.


Carcinogenic Activity


Presently, no epidemiological studies or case reports have been identified that examine the relationship between human cancer and exposure to 1-bromopropane.


Safety [6]


First Aid Measures


  • Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention.
  • Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention.
  • Serious Skin Contact: Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek immediate medical attention.
  • Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention.
  • Serious Inhalation: Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. WARNING: It may be hazardous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when the inhaled material is toxic, infectious or corrosive. Seek medical attention.
  • Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If large quantities of this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband.


Fire & Explosion Information


  • 1-bromopropane is flammable;
  • Auto-Ignition Temperature: 490°C (914°F)
  • Products of Combustion include carbon oxides (CO, CO2).
  • 1-bromopropane is flammable in the presence of open flames and sparks.
  • Small fires should be extinguished using dry chemical powder.
  • Large fires should be extinguished using alcohol foam, water spray or fog.
  • Cool containing vessels with water jet in order to prevent pressure build-up, auto-ignition or explosion.
  • When heated to decomposition 1-bromopropane emits highly toxic fumes of hydrogen bromide.


Exposure Controls & Personal Protection


Engineering Controls


  • Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapours below their respective threshold limit value.
  • Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location.


Personal Protective Equipment


The following personal protective equipment is recommended when handling 1-bromopropane:

  • Splash goggles;
  • Lab coat;
  • Vapour respirator (be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent);
  • Gloves.


Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill:

  • Splash goggles;
  • Full suit;
  • Vapour respirator;
  • Boots;
  • Gloves.
  • A self-contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product.
  • Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this product.



United States [7]


ACGIH: The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists has set a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for 1-bromopropane of 10 ppm, 50 mg/m3 TWA




  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1-Bromopropane
  2. http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8341613.htm
  3. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=1473&tid=285
  4. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxguides/toxguide-209.pdf
  5. http://www.nclabor.com/osha/etta/indguide/ig52.pdf
  6. http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9923169
  7. https://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_222006.html