While it reviews safety procedures, the White House is temporarily shutting down all federal research exploring how certain viruses and bacteria become more dangerous. During this pause, the National Institutes of Health will not provide new funding for any projects involving these experiments, NIH Director Francis S. Collins says. NIH encourages those currently conducting this type of workwhether federally funded or notto voluntarily pause their research while the government determines how to proceed. The gain of function research at issue explores the steps viruses or bacteria would need to become more easily transferable or deadly. It is most well-known in the case of experiments to make the influenza, MERS, or SARS viruses more easily infectious through respiratory contact. Gain-of-function research is controversial in part because of the risks of a dangerous disease falling into the wrong hands. But the Administrations move was prompted by several recent biosecurity problems at federal labs, which failed to safely contain dangerous pathogens. For example, a sample of a highly contagious avian flu virus was accidentally shipped between federal labs without proper precautions. No one was infected or harmed in the incidents. Along with the restrictions, the Office of Science & Technology Policy announced a two-part review of this type of research. The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a federal advisory committee, will conduct the review. For the second part, the National Academy of Sciences will hold two symposia to discuss the research and review the biosecurity boards draft recommendations.
Chemical & Engineering News, 27 October 2014 ;http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news ;