A comprehensive review on the analytical method, occurrence, transformation and toxicity of a reactive pollutant: BADGE


Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE)-based epoxy resin is one of the most widely used epoxy resins with an annual production amount of several million tons. Compared with all other legacy or emerging organic compounds, BADGE is special due to its toxicity and high reactivity in the environment. More and more studies are available on its analytical methods, occurrence, transformation and toxicity. Here, we provided a comprehensive review of the current BADGE-related studies, with focus on its production, application, available analytical methods, occurrences in the environment and human specimen, abiotic and biotic transformation, as well as the in vitro and in vivo toxicities. The available data show that BADGE and its derivatives are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and often well detected in human specimens. For their analysis, a water-free sample pretreatment should be considered to avoid hydrolysis. Additionally, their complex reactions with endogenous metabolites are areas of great interest. To date, the monitoring and further understanding of their transport and fate in the environment are still quite lacking, comparing with its analogues bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS). In terms of toxicity, the summary of its current studies and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast toxicity database suggests BADGE might be an endocrine disruptor, though more detailed evidence is still needed to confirm this hypothesis in in vivo animal models. Future study of BADGE should focus on its metabolic transformation, reaction with protein and validation of its role as an endocrine disruptor. We believe that the elucidation of BADGEs can greatly enhance our understandings of those reactive compounds in the environment and human.

Authors: Dongqi Wang, Haoduo Zhao, Xunchang Fei, Shane Allen Synder, Mingliang Fang, Min Liu
; Full Source: Environment international 2021 Jun 17;155:106701. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106701.