Pesticides applied to paddy fields may pose considerable danger to non-target aquatic organisms and further threaten human health. Flufiprole is a pesticide used in rice fields; considering the widespread existence of rice-fish-farming ecosystems, the acute toxicities of flufiprole enantiomers and its six metabolites (fipronil, flufiprole sulfide, flufiprole sulfone, detrifluoromethylsulfinyl flufiprole, desulfinyl flufiprole, and flufiprole amide) to four common aquatic organisms in rice fields including Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (pond loach), Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp), Pelophylax nigromaculatus (black-spotted frog), and Daphnia magna (water flea) were investigated. Genotoxicity, pathological changes and the effects on the antioxidant system of M. anguillicaudatus were also evaluated after exposure. The LC50 (EC50) values showed that fipronil and desulfinyl flufiprole were the most toxic compounds and were approximately about six times as toxic as flufiprole. No enantioselective toxicity was observed between the two enantiomers. The activity of antioxidant defense enzymes and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver and gills of M. anguillicaudatus were significantly increased by the chemicals in most cases. In addition, fipronil and desulfinyl flufiprole were found to induce an increase in the micronucleus rate in M. anguillicaudatus. Histopathological analysis showed that the liver of M. anguillicaudatus was not significantly affected by flufiprole. Our study demonstrated a potential negative effect on flufiprole-treated aquatic organisms. As an alternative to fipronil, the environmental risk of flufiprole and its metabolites to non-target organisms in rice fields cannot be ignored.
Authors: Jing Gao, Fang Wang, Wenqi Jiang, Jingwen Miao, Penny Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Donghui Liu
; Full Source: Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987): 2020 May 13;264:114808. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114808. Online ahead of print.