Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an energy metabolism-related enzyme, which generates NADH in glycolysis. A previous study revealed a novel role of exogenous GAPDH in the amelioration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-related, severe acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. In the present study, the authors show the effect of extracellular GAPDH on the physiological functions of macrophages, which play an important role in the onset of sepsis and ALI. GAPDH has no effect on cell viability, while it strongly suppressed cell adhesion, spreading, and phagocytic function of LPS-stimulated macrophages. GAPDH treatment significantly reduced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, while it induced interleukin (IL)-10 production from LPS-stimulated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. It is noteworthy that heat inactivation of GAPDH lost its immunomodulatory activity. Correspondingly, NADH significantly inhibited TNF-? and enhanced IL-10 production with elevation of both M1/M2 macrophage markers. The authors concluded that these results suggest that extracellular GAPDH induces intermediate M1/M2 macrophages for termination of inflammation, partly through its enzyme activity for generation of NADH.
Authors: Nakano T, Goto S, Takaoka Y, Tseng HP, Fujimura T, Kawamoto S, Ono K, Chen CL. ; Full Source: Biofactors. 2017 Jul 28. doi: 10.1002/biof.1379. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][Epub ahead of print][/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]