Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, namely thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs), are found ubiquitously in the environment, leading to broad human exposure and primary uptake through the food web and drinking water. TDCs are all competitive inhibitors of thyroid iodide uptake activity, but limited studies have assessed the cumulative risk of dietary exposure to multiple TDCs. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the individual exposure risk from 310 food samples in 11 categories, and also assessed the cumulative health risks from TDCs for the Taiwanese population using a perchlorate equivalent concentration (PEC) approach. Consequently, this study not only demonstrated the non-carcinogenic health risks from individual exposure but also highlighted that the cumulative exposure to these TDCs may adversely affect human thyroid functioning. Vegetables, livestock, fruits, and dairy products are the most susceptible to PEC exposure. We highlighted nitrate as the main contributor to PEC exposure. Finally, controlling the overall TDC concentrations from vegetables, livestock, fruits, and dairy products is emphasized in this study. This is the first study to conduct a cumulative risk assessment of dietary exposure to TDCs using the PEC approach for the Taiwanese population through probabilistic and sensitivity analyses.
Authors: Wei-Hsiang Chang, Pei-Hsuan Chen, Samuel Herianto, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Ching-Chang Lee
; Full Source: Environmental research 2022 Feb 26;211:112989. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.112989.