Indoor environments contribute significantly to total human exposure to air pollutants, as people spend most of their time indoors. Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from cooking with polluting (“dirty”) fuels, which include coal, kerosene, and biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and animal manure) is a global environmental health problem. Indoor pollutants are gases, particulates, toxins, and microorganisms among others, that can have an impact especially on the health of children and adults through a combination of different mechanisms on oxidative stress and gene activation, epigenetic, cellular, and immunological systems. Air pollution is a major risk factor and contributor to morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases. Children are significantly affected by the impact of the environment due to biological immaturity, prenatal and postnatal lung development. Poor air quality has been related to an increased prevalence of clinical manifestations of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Health professionals should increase their role in managing the exposure of children and adults to air pollution with better methods of care, prevention, and collective action. Interventions to reduce household pollutants may promote health and can be achieved with education, community, and health professional involvement.
Authors: Nelson Augusto Rosário Filho, Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira, Gennaro D’Amato, Lorenzo Cecchi, Ignacio J Ansotegui, Carmen Galán, Anna Pomés, Margarita Murrieta-Aguttes, Luis Caraballo, Philip Rouadi, Herberto J Chong-Neto, David B Peden
; Full Source: The World Allergy Organization journal 2021 Jan 7;14(1):100499. doi: 10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100499.