Both amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) and larval amphibian growth and development assay (LAGDA) can detect thyroid-mediated modality and adversity on the basis of morphological changes during the thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis. They are used for identification of thyroid hormone system disrupting chemicals (TDCs) for non-target organisms or the environment. The EU Guidance recommends that the AMA and the LAGDA should be used to address sufficient investigation of the thyroid-mediated modality and adversity, respectively. In the EU discussions over identification of TDCs, the necessity of using LAGDA as a follow-up of positive results of the AMA has been questioned because of the overlap between the endpoints and the exposure of both tests. This study analyzed similarities, differences, and sensitivity of these two assays in detection of TDCs. For agonists and most of antagonists of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, both AMA and LAGDA can detect the thyroid-mediated modality and adversity. The LAGDA, as a follow-up of the positive results of the AMA, may not be needed because the results of AMA are considered enough for identification of TDCs. For chemicals like inhibitors of iodotyrosine deiodinase, the LAGDA is considered necessary for identification of TDCs because the thyroid-mediated adversity cannot be detected until Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 62. Incorporation of mechanistic endpoints into existing test guidelines and the use of Xenopus Eleutheroembryo Thyroid Assay (XETA), extended amphibian metamorphosis assay (EAMA) and adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for testing and identification of TDCs are further discussed.
Authors: ZhiChao Dang
; Full Source: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) 2022 Aug 20;311:120006. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120006.