Health risk (defined as possible or probable human health damage, illness, or death due to exposure to environmental risk factors) was derived for a geological environment (soil) and estimated at a national scale for all of Europe and at more detailed regional scale for the Slovak Republic. This assessment was based on data obtained from international geochemical mapping of Europe and the national geochemical mapping program of the Slovak Republic. Chemical elements evaluated were B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn. The health risk assessment method was based on calculated average daily doses of individual elements analysed in every soil sample. Exposure levels were set using exposure parameters and reference doses from integrated US EPA databases. Calculated results were transformed into various maps (dot, pixel) to delineate areas where increased content of risk elements pose a risk to human health. European mapping results indicated increased concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soil (As, Pb, Ni) occur primarily in southern and western European countries. Such elements were associated with increased health risk for the resident population. For northern European countries, the health risk was estimated at a significantly lower level. The increased health risk level was observed in areas well known for high soil pollution (e.g. mining areas).