Application of validated migration models for the risk assessment of styrene and acrylonitrile in ABS plastic toys


With styrene and acrylonitrile in ABS plastic toys as examples, this paper introduces to the development of a systematic strategy for studying the chemical migration risk in toys. The approach, included the detection method, establishment of migration model, model verification, and the practical application of the model in risk assessment. First, simple and sensitive methods for detecting analyte residues and migration were developed by headspace GC-MS. Then, the migration models were established based on the migration data from 5 min to 168 h and verified using 11 ABS samples. The results showed that the predicted values of the models and the experimental values had a good fit (RMSE=0.10-8.72 %). Subsequently, the migration of analytes in 94 ABS toys was predicted with these models at specific migration times. The daily average exposure level to styrene and acrylonitrile were estimated for children (3 months to 3 years). At last, the migration models reasonably predicted that the cancer risk of styrene and acrylonitrile in ABS toys were 1.6 × 10-8-1.4 × 10-6 and 3.1 × 10-8-1.6 × 10-6, respectively. This research contributes to promote toy safety and child health by enriching migration models and risk assessments.

Authors: Zhijuan Wang, Hongyan Li, Tao Li, Qing Zhang, Yaqi Cai, Hua Bai, Qing Lv
; Full Source: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2023 Jan 25;252:114570. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2023.114570.