Wearing of vehicle parts could release many chemical additives into the environment, such as benzotriazoles (BTRs), benzothiazoles (BTHs), and p-phenylenediamines (PPDs), which are potentially toxic to wildlife and humans. This study investigates the occurrence, source, and risks of BTRs, BTHs, and PPDs in a source catchment providing water to Guangzhou, a megacity in South China, covering groundwater, surface water, and stormwater. The results showed that BTRs and BTHs were predominant in surface water and groundwater. Unexpectedly, the BTR and BTH concentrations were lower in surface water than groundwater in a third of the paired samples. For the first time, 6 PPD-quinone, a toxic ozonation product of N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (6 PPD), was extensively detected in source waters. Stormwater decreased the BTR concentrations but increased the 6 PPD-quinone concentrations in surface water owing to their affiliation to suspended particles. From natural to urban segments of Liuxi river, a downstream increasing trend in BTR and BTH concentrations was observed, confirming that they are indicative of urban anthropogenic activities. Strong correlations between industrial activities and BTR or BTH concentrations in surface water indicated that industrial activities were their main sources. Six compounds were prioritized as potentially persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) chemicals, combing our monitoring results and REACH criterion. This study improves our understanding of the environmental fates and risks of water-soluble tire-wear chemicals, which provide important information for chemical management, and indicates attention should be paid to the risk posed by 6 PPD-quinone in source water.
Authors: Ruiling Zhang, Shizhen Zhao, Xin Liu, Lele Tian, Yangzhi Mo, Xin Yi, Shiyang Liu, Jiaqi Liu, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
; Full Source: Environmental research 2022 Nov 4;114721. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.114721.