Persistent and mobile (PM) chemicals spread quickly in the water cycle and can reach drinking water. If these chemicals are also toxic (PMT) they may pose a threat to the aquatic environment and drinking water alike, and thus measures to prevent their spread are necessary. In this study, nontarget screening and cell-based toxicity tests after a polarity-based fractionation into polar and non-polar chemicals are utilized to assess and compare the effectiveness of ozonation and filtration through activated carbon in a wastewater treatment and drinking water production plant. Especially during wastewater treatment, differences in removal efficiency were evident. While median areas of non-polar features were reduced by a factor of 270, median areas for polar chemicals were only reduced by a factor of 4. Polar features showed significantly higher areas than their non-polar counterparts in wastewater treatment plant effluent and finished drinking water, implying a protection gap for these chemicals. Toxicity tests revealed higher initial toxicities (especially oxidative stress and estrogenic activity) for the non-polar fraction, but also showed a more pronounced decrease during treatment. Generally, the toxicity of the effluent was low for both fractions. Combined, these results imply a less effective removal but also a lower toxicity of polar chemicals. The behaviour of features during advanced waste and drinking water treatment was used to classify them as either PM chemicals or mobile transformation products (M-TPs). A suspect screening of the 476 highest intensity PM chemicals and M-TPs in 57 environmental and tap water samples showed high frequencies of detection (median >80%), which indicates the wide distribution of these chemicals in the aquatic environment and thus supports the chosen classification approach and the more generally applicability of obtained insights.
Authors: Grete Gollong, Isabelle J Neuwald, Jochen Kuckelkorn, Ralf Junek, Daniel Zahn
; Full Source: Water research 2022 Jul 10;221:118847. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2022.118847.