An increasing number of studies examined the potential effects of ambient particulate matter (PM: PM2.5 and PM10-PMs with diameters not greater than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively) pollution on the risk of depression and suicide; however, the results have been inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the overall relationship between PM exposure and depression/suicide based on current evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of current available studies. Thirty articles (20 for depression and 10 for suicide) with data from 1,447,313 participants were included in the meta-analysis. For a 10 μg/m3 increase in short-term exposure to PM2.5, we found a 2% (p < 0.001) increased the risk of depression and a 2% (p = 0.001) increased risk of suicide. A 10 μg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a more apparent increase of 18% (p = 0.005) in depression risk. In addition, a 10 μg/m3 increase in short-term exposure to PM10 was associated with a 2% (p = 0.003) increase in depression risk and a 1% (p = 0.002) increase in suicide risk. Subgroup analyses showed that associations between PM and depression were more apparent in people over 65 years and from developed regions. Besides, the study design and study quality might also have an impact on their associations. The meta-analysis found that an increase in ambient PM concentration was strongly associated with an increased risk of depression and suicide, and the associations for depression appeared stronger for smaller particles (PM2.5) and at a long-term time pattern.
Authors: Qisijing Liu, Wanzhou Wang, Xuelin Gu, Furong Deng, Xueqin Wang, Hualiang Lin, Xinbiao Guo, Shaowei Wu
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2021 Jan 22. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-12357-3.