In the present study, the authors examined prospective associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and body size measures in children. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites: monoethyl (MEP); mono-Bu (MBP); mono-(3-carboxypropyl) (MCPP); monobenzyl (MBzP); mono-iso-Bu (MiBP); mono-(2-ethylhexyl) (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) (MEOHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) (MECPP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the molar sum of the low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (low MWP: MEP, MBP and MiBP) and high molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (high MWP: MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP and MBzP) and of four di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (ªDEHP: MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP) and anthropometry, including body mass index and waist circumference were measured among 387 Hispanic and Black, New York City children who were between six and eight years at cohort enrolment (2004-2007). Relationships between baseline metabolite concentrations and body size characteristics obtained one year later were examined using multivariate-adjusted geometric means for each body size characteristic by continuous and categories of phthalate metabolite concentrations. Stratified analyses by body size (age/sex specific) were conducted. No significant associations are reported among all girls or boys. Dose response relationships were seen with monoethyl phthalate and the sum of low molecular-weight phthalates and body mass index and waist circumference among overweight children; for increasing monoethyl phthalate concentration quartiles among girls, adjusted mean body mass indexes were as follows: 21.3, 21.7, 23.8, 23.5 and adjusted mean waist circumference (cm) were as follows: 73.4, 73.5, 79.2, 78.8 (p-trend<0.001 for both). The authors concluded that this prospective analysis identified positive relationships between urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate and the sum of low molecular-weight phthalates and body size measures in overweight children. These are metabolites with concentrations above 1 íM.