In this study, midge larvae (Chironomus riparius) were exposed to sediments from a deposition sampled at a site along the Rhône River (France) downstream of an industrial site releasing various perfluorinated chemicals. This sediment is characterised by high concentrations of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) and a low perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration. Concentrations of 23 perfluoroalkyl compounds, including C4-C14 carboxylate acids, C4-C10 sulfonates, and seven precursors, were analysed in overlying and pore water, sediment, and larvae. Midge larvae accumulated carboxylate acids (C11-C14), PFOS, and two precursors (perfluorooctane sulfonamide: FOSA and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid, 6:2 FTSA). These substances accumulated mainly during the fourth instar larvae exponential growth phase. Accumulation of 6:2 FTSA, PFUnA, and PFOS occurred via trophic and tegumentary routes. Other compounds mainly accumulated from food. Kinetics followed a partition model, from which uptake and elimination constants were derived.
Authors: Bertin D, Ferrari BJ, Labadie P, Sapin A, Garric J, Budzinski H, Houde M, Babut M. ;Full Sources: Environmental Pollution. 2014 Jun;189:27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.02.018. Epub 2014 Mar 12. ;