This study aimed to evaluate biomarkers of exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors insecticides (AChE and BuChE activities) and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb blood levels) and their associations with biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters in farmers from Southern Brazil. One hundred and sixteen individuals were divided into two groups: 62 farmers (exposed group) and 54 subjects non-occupationally exposed (NOE) to agrochemicals. Erythrocyte (AChE) and serum (BuChE) cholinesterases activities were significantly reduced as well as blood Cd and Pb levels were increased in farmers when compared to NOE group (p < 0.05). Farmers presented increased glucose and urea levels compared to NOE group, which were inversely associated with AChE and positively correlated with Cd (p < 0.05), respectively. In addition, Cd was inversely associated with the hematological cells counts, which were significantly reduced in farmers (p < 0.05). C3 complement was higher in farmers and was positively associated with blood Pb (p < 0.05). Surface protein expression analysis revealed a downregulation of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in farmers. Inverse associations were found between LFA-1 and blood As, Cr, and Ni levels (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results pointed to a relationship between agrochemicals and metals exposure and biochemical, hematological, and immunological disorders that can lead to several chronic conditions.
Authors: Larissa V Cestonaro, Solange Cristina Garcia, Sabrina Nascimento, Bruna Gauer, Elisa Sauer, Gabriela Göethel, Caroline Peruzzi, Jessica Nardi, Nuryan Fão, Yasmin Piton, Wesley Braga, Rafael Rocha, Tatiana Saint’Pierre, Adriana Gioda, Marcelo Dutra Arbo
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international. 2020 May 21. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09203-3. Online ahead of print.