Blood Lead Levels and Associated Sociodemographic Factors among Children Aged 3 to 14 Years Living near Zinc and Lead Mines in Two Provinces in Vietnam


Lead poisoning in children is a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 403 children aged from 3 to 14 years living nearly zinc-lead mining areas in two provinces in Vietnam (Bac Kan and Thai Nguyen) from 06/2016 to 10/2016 to identify risk factors for lead contamination. Results. The proportion of children with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥ 10 μg/dL was 80.51% in Bac Kan and 50% in Thai Nguyen; the mean blood lead level for children was 14.41 ± 9.42 μg/dL. In linear regression analyses, the body mass index was negatively associated with elevated BLLs with r = -0.404, p < 0.05 (95% CI: -0.801, -0.006). In multivariable regression analysis, several risk factors were associated with lead contamination including male sex (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.13-5.24, p = 0.02), play areas in Bac Kan (aOR = 2.3 (1.02-5.17), p = 0.04), proximity of children's home of less than 2 kilometers from the mine (aOR = 2.90 (1.54-5.44), p = 0.001), and inattentive symptoms in Thai Nguyen (aOR = 7.85, 95% CI 3.49-17.69, p = 0.001). Environmental factors, including lead concentrations in the soil and ambient air samples in both locations, are many times higher than Vietnamese standards.

Authors: Thi Giang Hoang, Quang Phuc Tran, Van Tung Lo, Ngoc Hai Doan, Thu Ha Nguyen, Minh Khue Pham
; Full Source: BioMed research international 2021 Jul 6;2021:5597867. doi: 10.1155/2021/5597867.