Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for human exposure

Different flame retardants (FRs) namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging brominated/chlorinated flame retardants (Br/Cl FRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) were analysed in cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and floor dust of different households from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Chlorinated alkyl phosphate, penta-BDEs, BDE-209, and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the major chemicals in dust samples from all microenvironments. ?OPFRs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g dust) of 15,400, 10,500, and 3750 in AC filter, car and house floor dust, respectively. For all analysed chemicals, relatively lower levels were observed in floor dust than car and AC filter dust. The profiles of FRs in car dust were different from AC filter and floor dust, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticiser in variety of household and commercial products. For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values.

Authors: Ali N, Eqani SA, Ismail IM, Malarvannan G, Kadi MW, Albar HM, Rehan M, Covaci A. ;Full Source: Science of the Total Environment. 2016 Jun 22;569-570:269-277. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.093. [Epub ahead of print] ;