Pesticides are used to control pests that harm plants, animals, and humans. Their application results in the contamination of the food and water systems. Pesticides may cause harm to the human body via occupational exposure or the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Once a pesticide enters the human body, it may create health consequences such as cardiotoxicity. There is not enough information about pesticides that cause cardiotoxicity in the literature. Currently, there are few reports that summarized the cardiotoxicity due to some pesticide groups. This necessitates reviewing the current literature regarding pesticides and cardiotoxicity and to summarize them in a concrete review. The objectives of this review article were to summarize the advances in research related to pesticides and cardiotoxicity, to classify pesticides into certain groups according to cardiotoxicity, to discuss the possible mechanisms of cardiotoxicity, and to present the agents that ameliorate cardiotoxicity. Approximately 60 pesticides were involved in cardiotoxicity: 30, 13, and 17 were insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, respectively. The interesting outcome of this study is that 30 and 13 pesticides from toxicity classes II and III, respectively, are involved in cardiotoxicity. The use of standard antidotes for pesticide poisoning shows health consequences among users. Alternative safe medical management is the use of cardiotoxicity-ameliorating agents. This review identifies 24 ameliorating agents that were successfully used to manage 60 cases. The most effective agents were vitamin C, curcumin, vitamin E, quercetin, selenium, chrysin, and garlic extract. Vitamin C showed ameliorating effects in a wide range of toxicities. The exposure mode to pesticide residues, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 are aerial exposure to pesticide drift, home and/or office exposure, exposure due to drinking contaminated water, and consumption of contaminated food, respectively. General cardiotoxicity is represented by 5, whereas 6, 7, 8 and 9 are electrocardiogram (ECG) of hypotension due to exposure to OP residues, ECG of myocardial infraction due to exposure to OPs, ECG of hypertension due to exposure to OC and/or PY, and normal ECG respectively.
Authors: Yasser El-Nahhal, Ibrahim El-Nahhal
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2021 Jul 6. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-14999-9.