Exposure to insecticides containing organophosphate (OP) and neonicotinoid (NEO) compounds has been associated with adverse reproductive health outcomes. This study characterized and identified predictors of exposure to OP and NEO among 100 reproductive-age farmworkers from two intensive farming areas in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, including 50 each from the Fang (FA) and Chom Thong (CT) districts. OP exposure was determined by measuring the urinary concentrations of six dialkylphosphates (DAPs), whereas NEO exposure was determined by measuring the urinary concentrations of NEO compounds and their metabolites (NEO/m). The most frequently detected OPs were diethylphosphate (DEP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP), with DETP having the highest geometric mean (GM) concentration, 8.9 μg/g-creatinine. The most frequently detected NEO/m were N-desmethyl-acetamiprid (N-dm-ACE), imidacloprid (IMI), and thiamethoxam (THX), with IMI having the highest GM concentration, 8.7 μg/g-creatinine. Consumption of well water was the predominant determinant of OP and NEO exposure in this population. In addition to encouraging workers to use personal protective equipment, exposure of farmworkers to these compounds may be reduced by nation-wide monitoring agricultural insecticides and other pesticides in community drinking water resources.
Authors: Neeranuch Suwannarin, Tippawan Prapamontol, Tomohiko Isobe, Yukiko Nishihama, Shoji F Nakayama
; Full Source: International journal of environmental research and public health 2020 Oct 27;17(21):E7871. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17217871.