Groundwater is essential for the Earth biosphere but is often contaminated by harmful chemical compounds due to both anthropogenic and natural causes. A key factor controlling the fate of harmful chemicals in groundwater is the reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions. The formation factors for the groundwater redox conditions are insufficiently understood. In this study, long-term groundwater quality beneath one of the world megacities was monitored and evaluated. We measured and compared hydrogeochemical conditions including groundwater quality (35 chemical parameters) and redox conditions of five aquifers in the Arakawa Lowland and Musashino Upland, southern Kanto Plain of the Tokyo Metropolitan area, Japan. Monitoring results suggested the following: The main origin of groundwater is precipitation in both the Lowland and Upland areas. The three aquifers in the Arakawa Lowland are likely fully separated, with one unconfined and two confined aquifers under iron reducing and methanogenic conditions, respectively. Oppositely, in the Musashino Upland, the water masses in the two aquifers are likely partly connected, under aerobic conditions, and undergoing the same groundwater recharge and flow processes under similar hydrogeological conditions. The different groundwater redox conditions observed are likely caused by the very different groundwater residence times for the Arakawa Lowland and Musashino Upland.
Authors: Saito T, Spadini L, Saito H, Martins JMF, Oxarango L, Takemura T, Hamamoto S, Moldrup P, Kawamoto K, Komatsu T
; Full Source: The science of the total environment. 2020 Mar 6;722:137783. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137783. [Epub ahead of print]