Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used in the food industry. Recently, European Commission has banned TiO2 as a food additive, raising public concern about its health risk, especially the nanoparticles (NPs) contained therein. This study aimed to reveal the existence of TiO2 NPs in food and further estimate the dietary exposure level among Chinese population by characterizing particle size distribution, determining Ti content and micro-distribution in food products, and calculating food consumption from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The results showed that TiO2 particle size in food additives and chewing gums was 53.5-230.3 nm and 56.8-267.7 nm respectively, where NPs accounted for 34.7% and 55.6% respectively. TiO2 was firstly in situ presented on the surface of confectionary products with hard shells. The content of TiO2 ranged from 3.2 to 3409.3 μg/g product. Besides, the mean dietary intake was 71.31 μg/kgbw/day for TiO2 and 7.75 μg/kgbw/day for TiO2 NPs among Chinese population, affected by people’s dietary habits of different regions. Children’s exposure levels was the highest due to their love of sweets. More attention should be paid to risk assessment and management of TiO2 NPs for children in China.
Authors: Langzhi He, Hongbo Wang, Shumin Duan, Yanjun Gao, Lizhi Lyu, Xiaxian Ou, Nairui Yu, Yaoyun Zhang, Lingna Zheng, Yun Wang
; Full Source: NanoImpact 2022 Oct 26;100435. doi: 10.1016/j.impact.2022.100435.