Chromium VI and stomach cancer: a meta-analysis of the current epidemiological evidence

Chromium VI (hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI)) is an established cause of lung cancer, but its association with gastrointestinal cancer is less clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the current human epidemiological research on occupationally inhaled Cr(VI) supports the hypothesis that Cr(VI) is associated with human stomach cancer. Following a thorough literature search and review of individual studies, the authors used meta-analysis to summarise the current epidemiological literature on inhaled Cr(VI) and stomach cancer, explored major sources of heterogeneity, and assessed other elements of causal inference. Fifty-six cohort and case-control studies and 74 individual relative risk (RR) estimates on stomach cancer and Cr(VI) exposure or work in an occupation associated with high Cr(VI) exposure including chromium production, chrome plating, leather work and work with Portland cement were identified. The summary RR for all studies combined was 1.27 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.38). In analyses limited to only those studies identifying increased risks of lung cancer, the summary RR for stomach cancer was higher (RR=1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.69). the authors concluded that overall, these results suggest that Cr(VI) is a stomach carcinogen in humans, which is consistent with the tumour results reported in rodent studies.

Authors: Welling R, Beaumont JJ, Petersen SJ, Alexeeff GV, Steinmaus C. ;Full Source: Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2014 Sep 17. pii: oemed-2014-102178. doi:10.1136/oemed-2014-102178. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][Epub ahead of print] ;[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]