Combinatorial gut hormone therapy is one of the more promising strategies for identifying improved treatments for metabolic disease. Many approaches combine the established benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonism with one or more additional molecules with the aim of improving metabolic outcomes. Recent attention has been drawn to the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) system due to compelling pre-clinical evidence describing the metabolic benefits of antagonising the GIP receptor (GIPR). We rationalised that benefit might be accrued from combining GIPR antagonism with GLP-1 agonism. Two GIPR peptide antagonists, GIPA-1 (mouse GIP(3-30)NH2) and GIPA-2 (NαAc-K10[γEγE-C16]-Arg18-hGIP(5-42)), were pharmacologically characterised and both exhibited potent antagonist properties. Acute in vivo administration of GIPA-1 during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) had negligible effects on glucose tolerance and insulin in lean mice. In contrast, GIPA-2 impaired glucose tolerance and attenuated circulating insulin levels. A mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) was used to investigate the potential metabolic benefits of chronic dosing of each antagonist, alone or in combination with liraglutide. Chronic administration studies showed expected effects of liraglutide, lowering food intake, body weight, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations while improving glucose sensitivity, whereas delivery of either GIPR antagonist alone had negligible effects on these parameters. Interestingly, chronic dual therapy augmented insulin sensitizing effects and lowered plasma triglycerides and free-fatty acids, with more notable effects observed with GIPA-1 compared to GIPA-2. Thus, the co-administration of both a GIPR antagonist with a GLP1 agonist uncovers interesting beneficial effects on measures of insulin sensitivity, circulating lipids and certain adipose stores that seem influenced by the degree or nature of GIP receptor antagonism.
Authors: Jason A West, Anastasia Tsakmaki, Soumitra S Ghosh, David G Parkes, Rikke V Grønlund, Philip J Pedersen, David Maggs, Harith Rajagopalan, Gavin A Bewick
; Full Source: PloS one 2021 Mar 31;16(3):e0249239. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249239.