Combined toxicity of imidacloprid and cadmium on histopathology and acetylcholinesterase activity in aquatic oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex Müller, 1774)


Imidacloprid is one of the neonicotinoid insecticides that has been applied in many farmlands and was detected in many water resources worldwide. However, not only this insecticide but also cadmium was found in the agricultural wastewater in close proximity to industrial areas. This research aims to investigate the acute toxicity of imidacloprid and cadmium on the biochemical changes, pathological changes and accumulation of cadmium in Tubifex tubifex after 24- and 48-h exposure. The results show that combined toxicity of two chemicals was synergistic. In combined toxicity test, cadmium accumulation and acetylcholinesterase activity in worm tissue were significantly increased when compared with the single test. The severity of histopathology shows a dose-dependent relationship. Epidermal and gut cell degeneration, hyperplasia of epidermal and gut cells, irregular surface of the epidermis, overexpression of chloragosome and nerve degeneration were observed. Overall, this research provides useful bio-markers to assess the toxicity of imidacloprid and cadmium on the aquatic environment.

Authors: Lekvongphiboon P, Praphairaksit N
; Full Source: Environmental geochemistry and health. 2020 May 2. doi: 10.1007/s10653-020-00585-4. [Epub ahead of print]