Comparative acute toxicity of benzophenone derivatives and bisphenol analogues in the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea


Among UV-filters, benzophenones are one of the most abundantly used and detected groups in the environment. Bisphenols are also one of the most widely used chemicals in plastics, but their demonstrated deleterious effects on several organisms and humans have led to the production of alternative analogues. However, few comparative studies on the ecotoxicological effects of these derivatives or analogues have been carried out. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of two benzophenones (BP-3 and BP-4) and two bisphenols (BPA and BPS) in a short-term exposure of the freshwater endobenthic bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Clams were exposed for 96 h to several concentrations of the four pollutants: BP-3 (0.63; 1.25; 2.5; 5 mg l-1), BP-4 (4.75; 9.5; 19; 38 mg l-1), BPA (3.75; 7.5; 15; 30 mg l-1), and BPS (2.5; 5; 10; 20 mg l-1). The comparative acute toxicity of these pollutants was evaluated by the analysis of the post-exposure filtering capacity of clams, lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR). After the exposure period, except for BP-4, the chemicals tested seemed to be detected by clams and provoked valve closure, decreasing filter-feeding in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, C. fluminea exposed to the highest concentrations of BP-3, BP-4 and BPA showed a significant increase in LP, CAT and GR activities with respect to their controls. BP-3 and BPA were the most toxic compounds showing significant differences in all the parameters analysed at the highest concentrations assayed. However, clams exposed to BPS showed only significant alterations in filtration parameters and in GR activity, in the two highest concentrations tested, indicating that this compound was the least toxic to clams. Obtained results highlight the importance of investigating the effects that emerging pollutants have on aquatic organisms.

Authors: Marta Seoane, Ángeles Cid, Concepción Herrero, Marta Esperanza
; Full Source: Ecotoxicology (London, England) 2020 Nov 7. doi: 10.1007/s10646-020-02299-w.