Cytokines related to three major types of cell-mediated immunity in short- and long-term exposures to lead compounds

Many investigators have posited on the significant influence of lead on the immune system function. However, available data on this topic are not conclusive. In the present study, the authors examined the associations between lead exposure and levels of cytokines related to the T-helper (TH)-1, TH2, and TH17 types of immune response in humans. For these analyses, three population groups were examined: the first consisted of male workers exposed to lead for a short period of time (36-44 days); the second included male workers chronically exposed to lead (13?±?10 years); and a control group that was composed of male administrative workers with blood lead levels (BLL)?