Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies of two free-radical generators (AAPH and SIN-1) in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and human peripheral lymphocytes

Vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages and other cell types in the arterial wall may develop oxidative/nitrosative damage by generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which could alter endothelial cell function. These changes could play a key role in acute inflammatory processes, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative pathogenesis. A human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and human peripheral lymphocytes were employed to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by reactive peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite generated from 2,2′-azobis-(2-amidinopropane)-dihydrochloride (AAPH) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), respectively. The peroxides generated by AAPH were cytotoxic but not genotoxic in HMEC-1 cells and in peripheral lymphocytes (in sep. culture and in whole blood). SIN-1 showed progressive cytotoxicity to HMEC-1 at doses of 10-75 íM. In the same range of concentrations a significant increase in apoptotic cells and micronuclei was observed. DNA flow-cytometric analysis indicated that 100 and 200 íM SIN-1 significantly increased the proportion of cells in G2 phase compared with the control. SIN-1 decomposition products, [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][rad]- NO and superoxide anion or peroxynitrite, induced greater cytotoxicity in lymphocyte cultures (sep. and in whole blood) supplemented with HEPES – the organic buffer that is widely used to maintain stable physiological pH in cell cultures -, due to H2O2 production, than in cultures without HEPES. In contrast, increased genotoxicity was observed in both lymphocyte cultures in the absence of HEPES due to the reduced cytotoxicity. In the cell systems employed in this study the genotoxic effect appears closely dependent on the nature of radical species generated by SIN-1.

Authors: Scarpato, Roberto; Gambacciani, Carolina; Svezia, Benedetta; Chimenti, Daniele; Turchi, Gino ;Full Source: Mutation Research, Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2011, 722(1), 69-77 (Eng) ;