Dermal Penetration of aromatic amines (AA’s), often suspected or known to be carcinogenic, can play an important role in the overall human exposure. However, information on penetration of certain AA’s is poor and inconsistent. Penetration of the former lubricant additive N-phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBNA) and its contaminant beta-naphthylamine (BNA) a known carcinogen was investigated and the influence of formulation and co-application characterised. Percutaneous penetration of BNA and PBNA through freshly excised human skin (n = 8; 48 h) was investigated using an ex vivo diffusion cell model. Both AA’s were applied in a technical-conform lubricant or dissolved in hexane. The amount of BNA and PBNA applied to skin was 0.52 and 259 ?g/0.64 cm(2). The analytical determination of AA’s was performed by GC-MS. Both, BNA and PBNA penetrated through human skin (38 vs. 5% of applied dose). In contrast to BNA, the percutaneous penetration of PBNA continued beyond the end of exposure. Co-exposure of both AA’s increased the intradermal uptake of BNA and PBNA (p < 0.05). Exposure in lubricant showed the least overall penetration (2.9 and 1.9% of applied dose). The results clearly reveal that dermal penetration of both AA's depends strongly on the mode of application. Co-application and formulation alters the penetration of the AA's.
Authors: Dennerlein K, Göen T, Zobel M, Boos AM, Drexler H, Kilo S. ; Full Source: Chemosphere. 2017 Jul 17; 185:934-941. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.07.070. [Epub ahead of print]