Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide widely used in agriculture. Farm workers are thus regularly exposed during spraying season. To help interpret routine biomonitoring results, a proper knowledge of the time courses of biomarkers of exposure is necessary. The kinetics of biomarkers of exposure to permethrin has recently been documented in volunteers exposed to permethrin under controlled conditions but there is a lack of detailed time profiles following real exposure conditions. This study aimed at obtaining data on the excretion time courses of permethrin metabolites in agricultural workers following typical exposure conditions in the field. Twelve workers exposed to permethrin were recruited from a corn production farm in the Montérégie, Quebec, Canada. They provided all their urine voided over a period of 3 days following the onset of a spraying episode of permethrin or work in a treated area. Three major metabolites of permethrin, trans- and cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid metabolites (trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), were analysed. For the applicator, a progressive rise in excretion values was observed with a single peak being reached 29h following the onset of the 3.5h exposure and ensuing elimination with a half-life of 6.4h for trans-DCCA and 8.7h for 3-PBA. In the other workers (supervisor and corn pickers), excretion profiles were generally more compatible with multiple entries in the treated area during the 3-day sampling period and rapid elimination between exposure episodes. In general, 3-PBA was found in slightly higher levels than trans-DCCA, except for the applicator and a harvester. For both trans-DCCA and 3-PBA in a given worker, excretion values expressed as creatinine-normalised concentrations were less variable than those expressed as excretion rates per kilogram body weight. Time-dependent variability in excretion values of workers confirms the need for serial urine sampling of at least two biomarkers of exposure, with minimally pre-exposure, end-of-shift sample the day of onset of exposure, and following morning void.
Authors: Ferland S, Côté J, Ratelle M, Thuot R, Bouchard M. ;Full Source: The Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2015 Aug 31. pii: mev059. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][Epub ahead of print] ;[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]