PFAs (poly and perfluoroalkyl compounds) are hazardous and bioaccumulative chemicals that do not readily biodegrade or neutralize under normal environmental conditions. They have various industrial, commercial, domestic and defence applications. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, there are around 4700 PFAs registered to date. They are present in every stream of life, and they are often emerging and are even difficult to be detected by the standard chemical methods. This review aims to focus on the sources of various PFAs and the toxicities they impose on the environment and especially on humankind. Drinking water, food packaging, industrial areas and commercial household products are the primary PFAs sources. Some of the well-known treatment methods for remediation of PFAs presented in the literature are activated carbon, filtration, reverse osmosis, nano filtration, oxidation processes etc. The crucial stage of handling the PFAs occurs in determining and analysing the type of PFA and its remedy. This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of determination & tools, and techniques for remediation of PFAs in the environment. Improving new treatment methodologies that are economical and sustainable are essential for excluding the PFAs from the environment.
Authors: Sridhar Pilli, Ashutosh Kumar Pandey, Vivek Pandey, Kritika Pandey, Tulasiram Muddam, Baby Keerthi Thirunagari, Sai Teja Thota, Sunita Varjani, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi
; Full Source: Journal of environmental management 2021 Jul 26;297:113336. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113336.