Heavy metals (HMs) contaminated fish is a threat to humans when consumed. Dietary probiotics have evolved as a successful HMs removal approach. In this study, probiotics Enterococcus (EC) sp. and Lactococcus (LC) sp. were evaluated for toxicity alleviation and gut microbiota maintenance in Cyprinus carpio (single and combined approach) on Cr, Cd, and Cu mixture (0.8 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L) exposure (28 days). HMs removal, oxidative stress, cytokines response, histology, and gut microbiota were investigated. LC alone showed remarkable HMs removal for Cr (62.28%-87.57%), Cd (89%-90.42%), and Cu (72%-88%) than LC + EC. Probiotics up-regulated superoxide dismutase and total protein levels, while decreased the activity of malondialdehyde than the control. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and chemokine (IL-8) expressions were higher at 1.6 mg/L concentration, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) was higher in the 0.8 mg/L group. LC mitigated the histological alterations of gills, kidneys, and intestines, particularly at the lower concentration. Sequencing results revealed that Proteobacteria (44%-61%) was the most dominant phylum in all groups, followed by Fusobacteria (34%-36%) at 0.8 mg/L and Firmicutes (19%-34%) at 1.6 mg/L. The current study presented LC and EC potential separately and in combination to countermeasure HMs mixture induced toxicity and gut microbial dysbiosis, in which the conjoint group was less effective.
Authors: Apurva Kakade, El-Sayed Salama, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Arif, Pengya Feng, Xiangkai Li
; Full Source: Fish & shellfish immunology 2021 Nov 27;120:190-201. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2021.11.038.