Dietary intakes and predicted risks of pesticides in indoor dust and shallow groundwater: emphasis on children vulnerability in a farming community
The present study assessed the impacts of pesticide exposure through consumption of shallow groundwater and contact with indoor dust, in 7 villages, in Northern Nile Delta of Egypt. Chronic daily intake (CDI) of the detected pesticides was estimated for multiple exposure pathways. All exposure estimations, risk and hazard calculations were performed according to the 50th percentile of probability among different age categories. Accordingly, children were found to be highly exposed to contaminated groundwater and indoor dust particularly through ingestion pathway where total CDI recorded 1.4E-04, 2.3E-04, 2.5E-04 and 4.2E-04 mg.kg-1.day-1 at 1-6, 6-9, 9-12 and 12-18 years; respectively for ingested groundwater and 3.9E-04 mg. kg-1. day-1 for ingested dust. In addition, adults’ dietary intakes showed similar patterns. Furthermore, the study exhibited a considerable estimated cancer risk via ingestion pathway of contaminated groundwater and indoor dust than the dermal pathway. As for children and adults, total estimated cancer risks were 3.1E-04, 2.3E-04, 2.8E-05, 2.2E-05 due to oral exposure of contaminated groundwater and dust; respectively. The hazard index for either children or adults did not exceed 1, and the non-carcinogenic risks attributable to ingestion or dermal exposures in both tested environmental media were negligible. As for the maximally exposed individuals, people who meet the current assumptions with the established uncertainties, there is an apparent potential human health risk particularly with children because of their vulnerability.