DNA adducts: Formation, biological effects, and new biospecimens for mass spectrometric measurements in humans

Hazardous chemicals in the environment and diet or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. In addition, reactive intermediates can be generated in the body through oxidative stress and damage the genome. The identification and measurement of DNA adducts are required for understanding exposure and the causal role of a genotoxic chemical in cancer risk. Over the past three decades, 32 P-post labelling, immunoassays, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been established to assess exposures to chemicals through measurements of DNA adducts. It is now possible to measure some DNA adducts in human biopsy samples, by LC/MS, with as little as several milligrams of tissue. In this review study, the authors highlight the formation and biological effects of DNA adducts and highlight our advances in human biomonitoring by mass spectrometric analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, untapped biospecimens for carcinogen DNA adduct biomarker research.

Authors: Hwa Yun B, Guo J, Bellamri M, Turesky RJ. ; Full Source: Mass Spectrometry Reviews. 2018 Jun 11. doi: 10.1002/mas.21570. [Epub ahead of print]