The highly robust, effective, and sustainable remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater matrices, which is mainly generated from petroleum and related petrochemical industries, is of supreme interest. Owing to the notable presence of suspended solids, oil, and grease, organic matter, highly toxic elements, high salts, and recalcitrant chemicals, crude oil emulsions, and hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater are considered a potential threat to the environments, animals, plants, and humans. To effectively tackle this challenging issue, magnetic hybrid materials assembled at nano- and micro-scale with unique structural, chemical, and functional entities are considered robust candidates for demulsification purposes. The current research era on magnetic materials has superwettability, leading to an effective system of superwettability, which is vibrant and promising. The wettability of magnetic and magnetic hybrid materials explaining the theme of superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity under the liquid. Herein, we reviewed the applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as effective demulsifiers. The demulsifier wettability, dose, pH, salinity, and surface morphology of compelling, magnetic nanoparticles are the main hidden factors in effective demulsifiers. There is a comprehensive discussion on the reuse and recyclability of MNPs after oil, water separation. Furthermore, the main challenges, coupled with the magnetic nanoparticles in the effective separation of emulsions, are intensified in detail. This review will compare the current literature and the utilization of MNPs for the demulsification of oil and water emulsions. This is envisioned that the MNPs would be critical in the petroleum and petrochemical industry to effectively eliminate water from a crude oil emulsion.
Authors: Nisar Ali, Buame Jacinta Hellen, Chuansong Duanmu, Yong Yang, Shahid Nawaz, Adnan Khan, Farman Ali, Xiaoyan Gao, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal
; Full Source: Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;278:130405. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130405.