Effects of inhalable particulate matter on blood coagulation

Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly resulting from hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Lung and systemic inflammation resulting from PM inhalation may activate blood coagulation, but mechanisms for PM-related hypercoagulability are still largely unknown. In this study, the authors aimed to identify coagulation mechanisms activated by PM in a population with well characterised exposure. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time, endogenous thrombin potentials (ETPs) with/without exogenous triggers and with/without soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, D-dimer and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 37 workers in a steel production plant with well-characterised exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter of < 1 ím (PM1) and coarse PM (PM10 - PM1). Blood samples were collected from each subject on the first (baseline) and last (postexposure) day of a 4-day work week. The differences between baseline and post exposure levels were analysed using a paired Student's t-test. The authors fitted multivariate mixed-regression models to estimate the associations of interquartile range PM1 and coarse PM exposure with parameter levels. The results showed that none of the parameters had any significant changes from baseline in post exposure samples. However, exposure levels were associated with shorter PT (â[PM1] ) -0.33 s, P ) 0.08; â[PMcoarse] ) - 0.33 s, P ) 0.01), and higher ETP without exogenous triggers and with thrombomodulin (â[PM1] ) + 99 nM min, P ) 0.02; â[PMcoarse] ) + 66 nM min, P ) 0.05), t-PA (â[PM1] ) + 0.72 ng mL-1, P ) 0.01; â[PMcoarse] ) + 0.88 ng mL-1, P ) 0.04), and CRP (â[PM1] ) + 0.59 mg L-1, P ) 0.03; â[PMcoarse] ) + 0.48 mg L-1, P ) 0.01). The authors concluded that PM exposure did not show any short-term effect within the week of the study. The association of PM exposure with PT, ETP and CRP provides some evidence of long-term effects on inflammation and coagulation.

Authors: Bonzini, M.; Tripodi, A.; Artoni, A.; Tarantini, L.; Marinelli, B.; Bertazzi, P. A.; Apostoli, P.; Baccarelli, A. ;Full Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2010, 8(4), 662-668 (Eng) ;