Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chemicals that persist in the environment, indoors, and humans. Lung exposure to airborne and food contaminants, such as PCBs, may cause possible lung disorders, such as cancer. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of structurally different lower chlorinated (?4Cl), noncoplanar PCB40, and coplanar PCB77 on human lung fibroblast cell line (HELF) cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and possible molecular mechanisms. Noncoplanar PCB40 and coplanar PCB77 exhibited concentration- and time-dependent biphasic dose-response effects on HELF cell proliferation. Noncoplanar PCB40 and coplanar PCB77 induced 23 and 45% cytotoxicity at higher concentrations than the control. The flow cytometry analysis showed that exposure to PCB40 caused a significant increase in time spent in the G1 phase but decreased length of the S phase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, whereas PCB77 exposure decreased time spent in the G1 and S phases but increased time spent in the G2 phase. Western blot analysis indicated that PCB77 increased the expression of cyclin E, CDK2, p21, and caspase-9, while PCB40 decreased the expression of these proteins (except CDK2 and p21). An increase in CDK expression after exposure to PCB77 suggests that it may cause carcinogenic effects on HELF cells at higher doses. The results also demonstrate that the different cytotoxic effects induced by coplanar and nonplanar PCBs were correlated with their structural characteristics; the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than the nonplanar congener. The study elaborates threshold levels for these chemicals and suggests that the cytotoxicity mechanisms by which PCB congeners act on HELF cells depend on their planarity and chemical structures. Furthermore, the study will be important for developing antidotes to the adverse effects and risk assessment practices for PCBs.
Authors: Hashmi MZ, Zhang J, Li B, Su X, Tariq M, Ahmad N, Malik RN, Ullah K, Chen C, Shen C. ;Full Source: Environmental Toxicology. 2016 Jul 27. doi: 10.1002/tox.22315. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”][Epub ahead of print] ;[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]