Emerging contaminants such as synthetic musks and UV-filters as ingredients personal care products were widely used in human daily life in Thailand. The occurrence and fate of four synthetic musks and nine UV-filters were investigated in eight full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their receiving aquatic environments in Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand. All target compounds were detected in every single sample from STPs and surface water with magnitude from ng/L to μg/L. HHCB-lactone and HMS were found as the predominant musk and UV filter in influent and effluent of STPs, respectively. HHCB-lactone was also found with the highest concentration up to 79501 ng/g (dw) in the sludge. Low removal efficiency range from -37% (HHCB-lactone) to 58% (AHTN) were found for four musks in the STPs. The total emission of Σ4musks and Σ9UV-filters were estimated to be up to 16.7 mg/person/day and 0.28 mg/person/day by the STPs. Three synthetic musks and seven UV-filters were detected in fish from the receiving river. Concentration and emission of musks and UV filters found in this study from Thailand were much higher than those reported in many other countries worldwide. The preliminary ecological risk assessment showed that Musk xylene, 4-MBC and OC may pose high risk to aquatic organisms in the riverine and estuarine environment in Thailand.
Authors: Kanokthip Juksu, You-Sheng Liu, Jian-Liang Zhao, Li Yao, Charoon Sarin, Siranee Sreesai, Pantip Klomjek, Atsadang Traitangwong, Guang-Guo Ying
; Full Source: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2020 Aug 12;204:110952. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110952.