Emission of BTEX compounds from the frying process: Quantification, environmental effects, and probabilistic health risk assessment


Frying is one of the cooking methods which generates mono aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); subsequently, it affects health through carcinogenic (CR) and non-carcinogenic risks (n-CR). However, their environmental effects known by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and ozone formation potential (OFP) were also attended by many scientists. Therefore, this study quantified the BTEX emissions from 4 types of most commonly used edible oils (canola, corn, sunflower, and blend) under various frying conditions of temperatures and food additives. Furthermore, the effects of the chemicals in the light of health (CR and n-CR) and environment (SOA and OFP) were also investigated. The study results showed that higher temperatures could significantly increase the emissions, while the addition of food ingredients significantly reduces the emissions. The rank order of emitted chemical was obtained as T > B > E > X. The blend had the most emission among oils, followed by, in descending order, corn, sunflower, and canola. In association with environmental effects, the orders of X > T > E > B and T ∼ E > X > B were obtained for OFP and SOA, respectively. THQ for blend, corn, canola, and sunflower oils was higher than 1 (1.76, 1.35, 1.27, and 1.002, respectively), showing a considerable n-CR when the hood was off. In this respect, TCR for the oils (1.78 × 10-4, 1.45 × 10-4, 1.39 × 10-4, and 1.05 × 10-4, respectively) shown the probable risk for all oils. Moreover, hood switching reduced the risk by about 11-81%.

Authors: Ali Atamaleki, Saeed Motesaddi Zarandi, Mohamadreza Massoudinejad, Ali Esrafili, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
; Full Source: Environmental research 2021 Oct 28;112295. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112295.