The continuous use of household and personal care products (HPCPs) produces an immense amount of chemicals, such as parabens, bisphenols, benzophenones and alkylphenol ethoxylates, which are of great concern due to their well-known endocrine-disrupting properties. These chemicals easily enter the environment through man-made activities, thus contaminating the biota, including soil, water, plants and animals. Thus, on top of the direct exposure on account of their presence in HPCPs, humans are also susceptible to secondary indirect exposure attributed to the ubiquitous environmental contamination. The aim of this review was therefore to examine the sources and occurrence of these noteworthy contaminants (i.e. parabens, bisphenols, benzophenones, alkylphenol ethoxylates), to summarise the available research on their environmental presence and to highlight their bioaccumulation potential. The most notable environmental contaminants appear to be MeP and PrP among parabens, BPA and BPS among bisphenols, BP-3 among benzophenones and NP among alkylphenols. Their maximum detected concentrations in the environment are mostly in the range of ng/L, while in human tissues, their maximum concentrations achieved μg/L due to bioaccumulation, with BP-3 and nonylphenol showing the highest potential to bioaccumulate. Finally, of another great concern is the fact that even the unapproved parabens and benzophenones have been detected in the environment.
Authors: Veronika Klančič, Martina Gobec, Žiga Jakopin
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2022 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-22895-z.