Reproduction is a key biological function requiring a precise synchronization with annual and daily cues to cope with environmental fluctuations. Therefore, humans and animals have developed well-conserved photoneuroendocrine pathways to integrate and process circadian and seasonal light signals within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, in the past century, industrialization and the modern 24h/7d human lifestyle have imposed detrimental changes in natural habitats and rhythms of life. Indeed, the excessive amount of artificial light exposure at inappropriate timing because of shift work and nocturnal urban lighting, as well as the ubiquitous environmental contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals threaten the integrity of the daily and seasonal timing of biological functions. Here we review recent epidemiological, field and experimental studies, to discuss how light and chemical pollution of the environment can disrupt reproductive rhythms by interfering with the photoneuroendocrine timing system.
Authors: Marie-Azélie Moralia, Clarisse Quignon, Marine Simonneaux, Valérie Simonneaux
; Full Source: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology 2022 Feb 25;100990. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2022.100990.