The epigenome may be an important interface between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse outcome on human health. Many environmental pollutants deregulate gene expression and promote diseases by modulating the epigenome. Adverse epigenetic responses have been widely used for risk assessment of chemical substances. Various pollutants, including trace elements and persistent organic pollutants, have been detected frequently in the environment. Epigenetic toxicity of environmental matrices including water, air, soil, and food cannot be ignored. This review provides a comprehensive overview of epigenetic effects of pollutants and environmental matrices. The authors start with an overview of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation and the effects of several types of environmental pollutants (trace elements, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and volatile organic pollutants) on epigenetic modulation. Then they discuss the epigenetic responses to environmental water, air, and soil based on in vivo and in vitro assays. Finally, recommendations to promote the incorporation of epigenotoxicity into contamination screening and health risk assessment was discussed.
Authors: Hu J, Yu Y.
; Full Source: Chemosphere. 2019 Jul; 226:259-272. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.096. Epub 2019 Mar 18.