Estimating the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis of persons with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among Japanese urban workers and their families: a cross-sectional study

Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is considered to accelerate arteriosclerosis leading to coronary heart disease and stroke. Thus, it is important to quantitatively estimate the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis. A new method called cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed to reflect arterial stiffness independently from blood pressure at the time of measurement. Then, the authors examined if CAVI scores could discriminate the extent of arteriosclerosis between persons with prediabetes (or borderline diabetes) and with diabetes among Japanese urban workers and their families. Subjects were 9881 men and 12033 women of company employees and their families who participated in cardiovascular disease screening in Japan. Persons having diabetes and prediabetes were defined based on the criteria set by American Diabetes Association. CAVI scores were measured by VaSera VS-1000. The established age-sex specific cut-off points of CAVI scores above, which were determined to be abnormally high or advanced level of arteriosclerosis, were applied. To examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores, CAVI scores of screening participants were converted to a binary variable: 1 for less than cut-off points and 2 for equal or greater than cut-off points or abnormally high CAVI scores. Logistic regression method was used to examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores after adjusting for major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Prevalence of abnormally high CAVI scores was significantly higher after 40 years of age among persons with diabetes than either among persons with prediabetes or among normal persons in both genders. Significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of abnormally high CAVI scores appeared among persons with prediabetes: 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.48) for men and 1.14 (CI, 1.01-1.28) for women, and among persons with diabetes: 2.41 (CI, 1.97-2.95) for men and 2.52 (CI, 1.94-3.28) for women. The extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis (including arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis) was moderately enhanced among persons with prediabetes and was further advanced among persons with diabetes. Thus, it is important to introduce earlier interventions for changing lifestyle and diet of persons with prediabetes in order to prevent them from developing diabetes and further advancing arteriosclerosis.

Authors: Namekata T, Shirai K, Tanabe N, Miyanishi K, Nakata M, Suzuki K, Arai C, Ishizuka N. ;Full Source: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2016 Feb 24;16(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s12872-016-0230-6. ;