Phthalates and 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), bisphenols (BPs), parabens (PBs), and triclosan (TCS) are high-production-volume chemicals of pseudo-persistence that are concerning for the environment and human health. This study aims to assess the exposure to 10 phthalates, DINCH, and environmental phenols (3 BPs, 7 PBs, and TCS) of Slovenian men (n = 548) and lactating primiparous women (n = 536). We observed urinary concentrations comparable to studies from other countries and significant differences among the sub-populations. In our study, men had significantly higher levels of phthalates, DINCH, and BPs, whereas the concentrations of PBs in urine were significantly higher in women. The most significant determinant of exposure was the area of residence and the year of sampling (2008-2014) that mirrors trends in the market. Participants from urban or industrialized sampling locations had higher levels of almost all monitored analytes compared to rural locations. In an attempt to assess the risk of the population, hazard quotient (HQ) values were calculated for individual compounds and the chemical mixture. Individual analytes do not seem to pose a risk to the studied population at current exposure levels, whereas the HQ value of the chemical mixture is near the threshold of 1 which would indicate a higher risk. We conclude that greater emphasis on the risk resulting from cumulative exposure to chemical mixtures and additional studies are needed to estimate the exposure of susceptible populations, such as children.
Authors: Agneta A Runkel, Darja Mazej, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Žiga Tkalec, Tina Kosjek, Milena Horvat
; Full Source: Chemosphere 2021 Aug 10;286(Pt 3):131858. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131858.