Exposure to Phthalate and Organophosphate Esters via Indoor Dust and PM10 Is a Cause of Concern for the Exposed Saudi Population


In this study, we measured the occurrence of organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalates in the settled dust (floor and air conditioner filter dust) and in suspended particulate matter (PM10) from different microenvironments (households (n = 20), offices (n = 10) and hotels (n = 10)) of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the major pollutant (contributing >85% of total chemicals burden) in all types of indoor dust with a concentration up to 3,901,500 ng g-1. While dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and DEHP together contributed >70% in PM10 (1900 ng m-3), which indicate PM10 as a significant source of exposure for DBP and DEHP in different Saudi indoor settings. Tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) was the major OPE in PM10 with a concentration of up to 185 ng m-3 and the occurrence of OPEs in indoor dust varied in studied indoor settings. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of studied chemicals via dust ingestion and inhalation of PM10 was below the reference dose (RfD) of individual chemicals. However, estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) with moderate risk (1.5 × 10-5) for Saudi adults and calculated hazardous index (HI) of >1 for Saudi children from DEHP showed a cause of concern to the local public health.

Authors: Nadeem Ali, Nabil A Alhakamy, Iqbal M I Ismail, Ehtisham Nazar, Ahmed Saleh Summan, Syed Ali Musstjab Akbar Shah Eqani, Govindan Malarvannan
; Full Source: International journal of environmental research and public health 2021 Feb 22;18(4):2125. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18042125.