Exposure, toxicological mechanism of endocrine disrupting compounds and future direction of identification using nano-architectonics
Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) are a group of exogenous chemicals that structurally mimic hormones and interfere with the hormonal signaling cascade. EDC interacts with hormone receptors, transcriptional activators, and co-activators, altering the signaling pathway at both genomic and non-genomic levels. Consequently, these compounds are responsible for adverse health ailments such as cancer, reproductive issues, obesity, and cardiovascular and neurological disorders. The persistent nature and increasing incidence of environmental contamination from anthropogenic and industrial effluents have become a global concern, resulting in a movement in both developed and developing countries to identify and estimate the degree of exposure to EDC. The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has outlined a series of in vitro and in vivo assays to screen potential endocrine disruptors. However, the multidisciplinary nature and concerns over the widespread application demand alternative and practical techniques for identifying and estimating EDC. The review chronicles the state-of-art 20 years (1990-2023) of scientific literature regarding EDC’s exposure and molecular mechanism, highlighting the toxicological effects on the biological system. Alteration in signaling mechanisms by representative endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and genistein has been emphasized. We further discuss the currently available assays and techniques for in vitro detection and propose the prominence of designing nano-architectonic-sensor substrates for on-site detection of EDC in the contaminated aqueous environment.
Authors: Eepsita Priyadarshini, Ajith Manayil Parambil, Paulraj Rajamani, Vinoth Kumar Ponnusamy, Yi-Hsun Chen
; Full Source: Environmental research 2023 Mar 3;115577. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.115577.