Background: Few studies have examined whether gestational exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs), widely used chemicals with potential endocrine-disrupting potency and developmental toxicity, is associated with impaired infant growth.
Methods: We analyzed data from 329 mother-infant pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study (2003-2006, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA). We quantified concentrations of four OPE metabolites in maternal urine collected at 16 and 26 weeks of gestation, and at delivery. We calculated z-scores using 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards for the 4-week anthropometric measures (weight, length, and head circumference), the ponderal index, and weekly growth rates. We used multiple informant models to examine window-specific associations between individual OPE metabolites and anthropometric outcomes. We further modeled OPEs as a mixture for window-specific associations with 4-week anthropometric outcomes using mean field variational Bayesian inference procedure for lagged kernel machine regression (MFVB-LKMR). We stratified the models by infant sex.
Results: Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) in mothers at 16 weeks, and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP) and bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) at delivery were positively associated with z-scores of weight, length, and head circumference in all infants at 4 weeks of age. After stratifying by infant sex, positive associations were only observed in males for DPHP at 16 weeks and BCEP at delivery and in females for BDCIPP at delivery. Negative associations not present in all infants were observed in males for di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) at 26 weeks of gestation with weight z-score and DPHP at delivery with head circumference z-score. Results were generally similar using MFVB-LKMR models with more conservative 95 % credible intervals. We did not identify consistent associations of gestational OPE metabolite concentrations with the ponderal index and weekly growth rates.
Conclusion: In this cohort, exposure to OPEs during gestation was associated with altered infant anthropometry at 4 weeks after birth.
Authors: Weili Yang, Joseph M Braun, Ann M Vuong, Zana Percy, Yingying Xu, Changchun Xie, Ranjan Deka, Antonia M Calafat, Maria Ospina, Heather H Burris, Kimberly Yolton, Kim M Cecil, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
; Full Source: The Science of the total environment 2022 Oct 8;857(Pt 1):159322. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159322.