Kumarkhali upazila in Kushtia district of western Bangladesh has become especially vulnerable to dye-effluent pollution over the last two decades. Twenty dyeing effluent samples were obtained at random from various dyeing units and used to determine the heavy metal concentration. The effluent pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids ranged from 3.69 to 13.68, 627 to 7160 mS cm-1 and 4140 to 19800 mg L-1, respectively. In dyeing effluents, the average concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe and Cr ions were 5.50, 82.75, 6.80, 14.27, 66.03 and 65.28 μg mL-1, respectively, while the amount of Cd was barely detectable. Total annual discharges of Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe and Cr were found to be 21.52, 1.43, 1.77, 3.71, 17.12 and 16.98 kg year-1, respectively, which were high enough to pollute the local environment. According to the survey report, only a minority were aware of public safety measures and proper disposal procedures, though many respondents were conscious of the dangers associated with dyes and chemical substances. Most interviewees (58.33%) used synthetic dyes and other dangerous chemicals throughout the dyeing process, despite the fact that 43.33% did not use hand gloves. A remarkable 80% of respondents were improperly disposing of unused dyes and chemicals. Overall, there was a lack of awareness, right attitude and appropriate behavioural patterns about using dyeing chemicals. To prevent the negative effects of dyeing effluents on the community in the research area, environmental conservation rules should be appropriately implemented.
Authors: Shafiqul Islam, Arifur Rahman, Kamrun Nahar, Saljar Rahman Chowdhury, Istiaq Ahmed, K M Mohiuddin
; Full Source: Environmental science and pollution research international 2022 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-20425-5.