Human health risk assessment of occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus in the manufacturing facility area in China and comparison with e-waste recycling site
A screening level human health risk assessment based on the worst-case scenario was conducted on the occupational and residential exposures to dechlorane plus (DP) in the manufacturing facility region and an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site in China, which are two of the most polluted areas of DP in the world. Total estimated exposure doses (EEDs) via dietary intake, dermal contact, and inhalation was approximately 0.01 mg kg-1 d-1 for people living in the manufacturing facility region. In comparison, total EEDs (approximately 0.03 íg kg-1, d-1) were 300-fold lower in people living near an e-waste recycling site in China. Chronic oral, dermal, and inhalation reference doses (RfDs) were estimated to be 5.0, 2.0, and 0.01 mg kg-1 d-1, respectively. The oral RfD was markedly greater than Mirex (2 x 10-4 mg kg-1 d-1) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209; 7 x 10-3 mg kg-1 d-1), which have been or might be replaced by DP as a flame retardant with less toxicity. Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate the probability densities and functions for the hazard index, which was calculated from the EEDs and RfDs to assess the human health risk. The authors concluded that the hazard index was three orders of magnitude lower than 1, suggesting that occupational and residential exposures were relatively safe in the manufacturing facility region and e-waste recycling site.